Return to Common Sense

May 2, 2016

Section: Culture – Welfare

When he gave something the first time, there was gratitude; and when he gave something a second time to that same community, there was anticipation; the third time, there was expectation; the fourth time, there was entitlement; and the fifth time, there was dependency.” Bob Lupton.

Once poverty is relative, it becomes impossible to eliminate – along with the government programs and the massive amounts of bureaucracy needed to do so.” Robert Rector


Philosophy (Background, Issues, Objectives):

Welfare programs cost more than $900 billion a year.

o   Continued dependence upon relief induces a spiritual and moral disintegration fundamentally destructive to the national fiber,” President Franklin D. Roosevelt said in 1935. “To dole out relief in this way is to administer a narcotic, a subtle destroyer of the human spirit.”

o   In 1964, 19% of Americans were poor.

o   In 2012, 16% of Americans are poor, but the definition of poor has changed.

o   By the standards of the 19th century, practically no American is poor.

o   In comparison with Bangladeshis, there are precious few poor in the United States.

o   Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program (cut AFDC caseload in half)

§  In 1996, President Clinton signed the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, often referred to as the welfare-reform act, and welfare caseloads plummeted by 70%, down to 3.8 million taking 8.8 million people off the rolls.

§  The 2005 Budget Reconciliation Act embraced the “work-first” philosophy designed simply to get them working, even in entry-level positions, under the supervision of a caseworker.

§  Healthy Marriage Initiative.

§  Fatherhood Initiative

§  Head Start

o   In 2010, 70.5% of federal spending goes to dependence programs.

§  In 2010, housing assistance grew to $59.4 billion.

§  In 2010, Medicare grew to $452 billion and Medicaid grew to $273 billion.

§  In 2010, welfare and low-income health care assistance grew to $1,137 billion.

·         In 2005, $620 billion was spent on more than eighty welfare programs funded by federal, state, and local governments. 

o   In 2005, Social Security benefits for those in the poorest fifth of the population totaled $100 billion. 

o   In 2005, Medicare provided another $115 billion.

o   In 2005, educating the children of low-income families cost $105 billion more. 

o   In 2005 $40 billion was spent on uncompensated medical care and $78 billion in private charity.

Welfare system is expensive, over $1 trillion in 2005, and growing.

Name (Sorted by Cost)

Cost $ Millions

Number of Participants




Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)



Earned Income Tax Credit

(Refundable Portion)


27,000,000 (households)

Supplemental Security Income



Federal Pell Grants



Temporary Assistance for Needy Families


4,492,000 (monthly avg)

Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers


2,000,000 (households)

Very Low to Moderate Income Housing Loans- Sec. 502


131,370 (units)

Title 1 Grants to Local Education Agencies


N/A (formula grants)

Children’s Health Insurance Program



National School Lunch Program



Adjustable Rate Mortgages


43,687 (units)

Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program


N/A (formula grants)

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)



Head Start



Child Care and Development Block Grant


N/A (formula grant)

Low Income Home Energy Assistance


N/A (formula grants)

Foster Care Title IV


N/A (formula grants)

Public and Indian Housing


1,100,000 (units)

State Administrative Matching Grants for SNAP


N/A (formula grants)

Child Care and Development Mandatory and Matching Funds


N/A (formula grants)

School Breakfast Program



Adoption Assistance


N/A (formula grants)

Public Housing Capital Fund


N/A (project grants)

The impact of food stamps, Section 8 housing subsidies, Medicaid, and other support programs has been to create a permanent welfare class which, in terms of skills and attitudes, is poorly equipped to return to work.

o   In 2011 one in seven Americans are receiving food stamps.

o   States have made households automatically eligible (categorical eligibility) for food stamps if they receive other federal benefits like TANF or counseling services.

o   Duplication of benefits between other federal programs in rampant (ie. Food stamps and free school lunches)

o   Lacking the role model of a responsible father, children grow up to believe that dependency is a natural condition of life.

o   A great deal of evidence points to a close relationship between crime and welfare.

In the late 1960s the federal government tested the relationship between welfare and working in "the most ambitious social science experiment in history."

o   The number of hours worked dropped 9% for husbands and 20% for wives, relative to the control group. For young male adults it dropped 43% more.

o   The length of unemployment increased 27% among husbands and 42% for wives, relative to the control group. For single female heads of households it increased 60% more.

The IRS administers "one of the federal government's largest benefit programs for working families and individuals."

o   EITC is the "largest cash assistance program targeted at low-income families."

o   In 2008, of the approximately 142 million Forms 1040 filed, 25 million included EITC claims totaling $51.6 billion - the IRS paid out $45 billion in EITC benefits for the 2008 tax year.

o   In 2009, over 26 million people received nearly $59 billion in EITC benefits.

o   In 2008, another $20.5 billion was paid for Additional Child Tax Credits.

Poverty is the anchor that binds people into welfare dependence.

o   Destitution, which is lack of income sufficient to assure physical survival and to prevent suffering from hunger, exposure, or remediable or preventable illness;

o   Want, which is lack of enough income to support essential welfare;

o   Hardship, which is lack of enough to prevent acute persistent discomfort or inconvenience;

o   Relative deprivation, which is a lack of enough income, status, or whatever else may be valued to prevent one from feeling poor in comparison to others.   

o   One important category of poverty Banfield does not mention is psychological or spiritual poverty

o   Orshansky used the average family budget and the cost of food.

o   Because the average family spent one-third of its budget on food in 1955, the poverty threshold was set at three times the minimum cost to purchase an adequate food diet.

o   The formula took a basic minimum (the food budget) and related it to the overall prevailing standard of living.

o   She described it as an acceptable minimum social standard according to the custom of the day.

o   It was not meant to be an absolute measure of poverty.

o   The federal government adjusted the poverty line every year thereafter, accounting solely for the cost of inflation.

o   Official poverty measures count just family's cash income.

§  The 2009 poverty rate was income below $11,161 for an individual, or below $21,756 for a family of four.

o   Official poverty ignores additional sources of support such as:

§  Housing subsidies;

§  Food stamps;

§  Medicaid;

Ø  The number of Americans on food stamps is rising dramatically, now approaching 40 million people in 2009.

§  Fuel assistance; and

§  Earned-Income Tax Credit.

o   The typical American categorized as “poor” in 2007 has many amenities formally thought of as luxuries.

§  43% of all poor households own their own home.

§  80% of poor households have air-conditioning.

§  Only 6% of poor households are overcrowded, two thirds have more than two rooms per person.

§  Typical poor American has more living space than the average individual living in Paris, London, Vienna, Athens, and other cities throughout Europe.

§  Nearly three quarters own a car; 31% own two or more cars.

§  97% have a color television; over half have two or more TVs.

§  62% have cable or satellite TV reception.

§  78% have a VCR or DVD player.

§  89% own microwave ovens; more than have a stereo.

§  More than a third have an automatic dishwasher.

o   In 2012, the condition of the poor was updated.

§  67% have cable or satellite television.

§  40% have a wide screen plasma or LCD TV.

§  More than half have video game systems such as Xbox or PlayStation.

§  25% have digital video recorder system such as DVR or TIVO.

§  50% have personal computers.

§  43% have internet access.

§  92% own microwave ovens.

o   Official poverty ignores Medicaid, housing allowances, food stamps and other federal and local government subsidies to the poor.

§  $40,000 has been labeled as the breakaway point for many government welfare programs (a little less than $20 per hour).

o   Rather than materially poor, many of America’s “poor” suffer from the effects of “behavioral poverty.”

§  A breakdown in the values, and conduct conducive to healthy families and self sufficiency.

§  Mean testing benefits are reduced as the non-welfare income rises.

§  Welfare eligibility rules (AFDC) incent fathers to leave the home, undermining basic values.

o   The bottom quintile has a 35% increase in income compared with the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles.

§  Earnings up, welfare down caused by welfare reform, not government payments.

§  Earned income tax credit accounted for the second biggest increase in income.

o   AEI maintains that including all market income reduces 2004 poverty rate from 12.7% down to 5.4%, demonstrating an incredible reduction in real poverty in this country.  

o   Statistically considering all compensation, private and government, the actual poverty rate should be in the range of 1 to 3 percent.

o   In constant dollars, consumption by people in the lowest quintile rose by more than 40% over the past four decades.

o   Spending is vital because it is the principal determinant of standard of living.

o   Measuring income on an after-tax basis and including transfers reduces real and perceived inequality.

o   The Census Bureau data is reported by household, and composition of households have changed over the past 30 years.

o   Food insecurity is not synonymous with starvation, chronic hunger, and substandard nutrition.

o   Low food security is “reduced quality, variety, or desirability of diet with little or no indication of reduced food intake”; and

o   Very low food security is “multiple indications of disrupted eating patterns and reduced food intake.”

§  Food security does not indicate reduced food intake, only disrupted eating patterns.

·         Recent studies have shown that people do not remain stagnant in their income level.

o   The Treasury Department’s latest study found that during the 10-year period starting in 1996, roughly half of the taxpayers who started in the bottom 20% had moved up to a higher income group by 2005.

o   Less than half of people in the top 1 percent in 1996 were still there in 2005.

o   Nearly half of the families in the lowest fifth of income earners in 2001 had moved up within six years.

o   More than a third of those in the highest fifth of income-earners in 2001 had moved down.

o   Another recent survey of over 500 successful entrepreneurs found that 93% came from middle-class or lower-class backgrounds.

§  Most were the first in their families to launch a business.

Several states are experimenting with ways to return people to independence.

o   Moving to Work limits the length of time residents are eligible to receive housing subsidies.

o   Moving to Work requires all adults to work, and to work an increasing number of hours per week during their five year tenure.

o   Participants have to meet quarterly with a case manager to plan their path to financial independence.

o   More than 850 families have completed the program to enter assistance-free living.

o   30% of program participants become homeowners when they left.

o   One work requirements were established, thousands of food stamp recipients moved into the workforce, promoting income gains and a decrease in poverty.

o   40% of the individuals who left the food stamp ranks found employment within three months, and about 60% found employment within a year.

o   Average income increased by 127%.

o   Half of those who left the rolls and are working have earnings above the poverty level.

o   With the implementation of the work requirement, the caseload dropped by 75%.

The idea to replace the multiple means-based programs with a single program has been suggested, but has been found not to achieve the program objectives.

o   The appeal of a guaranteed income also diminishes when judged against its ability to move people away from government dependency.

o   There is some evidence that a guaranteed minimum scheme would undermine incentives to seek employment.

o   Four landmark experiments in the 1960s and '70s examined the Negative Income Tax's impact on labor supply.

o   The recipients of NIT grants tended to work fewer hours compared to control groups that did not receive the grants.

o   After 30 welfare experiments in the 1990s, only welfare policies that included work requirements pushed people off welfare and back to self-sufficiency.

Europe has begun to roll back some of their welfare programs.

o   Work is the surest route out of poverty; it structures lives; unlocks potential; builds confidence; forges friendships; cements communities; provides mental well-being.

Several countries are eliminating their nation’s social-welfare programs and replacing with a guaranteed national income for all citizens.



Embrace the ‘Culture of Belonging” encouraging the combination of “work, wedlock, and worship.”

Ten Welfare-Reform Lessons:

Defend and strengthen marriage and the family in federal and state law and policies.

Obey the principles of “calculated” compassion:



Short term, Make explicit the goals to be 1) increase self-sufficiency; 2) enhance productive participation in society; and 3) improve personal well-being and upward mobility.

Transfer Food Stamp Program from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of Health and Human Services.

Promote marriage as an institution and a cure for poverty.

o   Conduct public education campaigns within low-income communities on the importance of marriage;

o   Provide marriage education classes to at-risk students in middle and high schools;

o   Provide life skills training, relationship building, and marriage education programs to interested young adults who are likely to become single parents.

Strengthen work requirements under all the means-tested programs to restore welfare as a temporary assistance program.

o   Include a guaranteed offer of work for everyone who reports to local welfare office before 9am.

o   Local welfare office would provide free daycare for participants small children.

o   For those who work a minimum numbers of hours each month would get a Medicaid voucher to purchase health insurance.

o   Mandate large scale, multi-site experimental evaluations of implementations to tune programs prior to final adoption.

o   Treat a portion of welfare aid as a loan to be repaid by able-bodied recipients.

Eliminate Department of Housing and Urban Development Community Development Block Grants ($3.1B).

Long term, Abolish federal Department of Housing and Urban Development as not covered under enumerated powers (63 billion annually).

Abolish federal Department of Health and Human Services as not covered under enumerated powers.



The 5000 Year Leap” by W. Cleon Skousen published by National Center for Constitutional Studies, 2006.

After the Welfare State” by Tom G. Palmer published by Students for Liberty, 2012.

 Who’s the Fairest of Them All?” by Stephen Moore published by Encounter Books, 2012.

 The government’s welfare bureaucracy” by Frank Gillespie dated March 21, 2002 published by Main Street News at http://www.mainstreetnews.com/Arch/02/0320/MadOpinion.html .

The rich are getting richer, and so are poor” by Jack Kemp dated January 28, 2003 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/JackKemp/2003/01/28/the_rich_are_getting_richer,_and_so_are_poor .

Rich-poor divide shows poverty is relative” by Jonah Goldberg dated June 18, 2003 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/JonahGoldberg/2003/06/18/rich-poor_divide_shows_poverty_is_relative .

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Long After the Alarm Went Off” by Ellis Cose dated March 11, 2005 published by MSNBC at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7103230/site/newsweek/ .

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How Welfare Reform Worked” by Kay S. Hymowitz dated Spring 2006 published by City Journal at http://www.city-journal.org/html/16_2_welfare_reform.html .

The Collapse of Marriage and the Rise of Welfare Dependence” by Jennifer A. Marshall, Robert Lerman, Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, Wade Horn, and Robert Rector dated May 22, 2006 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Welfare/hl959.cfm .

New welfare rules designed to reduce rolls” by Richard Wolf dated June 28, 2006 published by USA Today at http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-06-28-new-welfare-rules_x.htm .

Further Welfare Reform and the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005” by Stephen M. Lilienthal dated July 13, 2006 published by American Daily at http://americandaily.com/article/14512 .

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More Welfare, More Poverty” by Michael D. Tanner dated September 21, 2006 published by The Cato Institute at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6698 .

The Feminization of Poverty? There You Go Again, Hillary!” by Carey Roberts dated October 4, 2006 published by Renew America at http://www.renewamerica.us/columns/roberts/061003 .

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States’ Addiction to Welfare Corrupts Federalist System” by Mike Franc dated March 2, 2007 published by Human Events Online at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=19645 .

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Welfare and the ‘Road to Serfdom’” by Stephen Baskerville dated June 15, 2007 published by Institute for Policy Innovation at http://www.ipi.org/ .

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Slaves to the Welfare State” by Thomas Brewton dated May 10, 2008 published by Thomas Brewton at http://www.thomasbrewton.com/index.php/weblog/slaves_to_the_welfare_state.

Welfare State Comes With A Huge Price Tag” by Walter E Williams dated August 5, 2008 published by Investor’s Business Daily at http://www.ibdeditorials.com/IBDArticles.aspx?id=302827260834584 .

What about the Poor?” by Barry Loberfeld dated August 13, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=A027267D-1F45-4226-8289-8779A520AF2A .

Poverty and Welfare in America” by Peter Ferrara dated August 21, 2008 published by The American Spectator at http://www.spectator.org/dsp_article.asp?art_id=13740 .

One Trillion-Dollar War” by Edgar K. Browning dated September 10, 2008 published by Intellectual Conservative at http://www.intellectualconservative.com/2008/09/10/our-trillion-dollar-war/ .

The Poverty of the official Poverty Rate” by Nicholas Eberstadt dated November 12, 2008 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.28926,filter.all/pub_detail.asp .

Welfare Reform, Phase Two” by Steven Malanga dated Winter 2009 published by City Journal at http://www.city-journal.org/2009/19_1_welfare-reform.html .

Obama to Spend $10.3 Trillion on Welfare: Uncovering the Full Cost of Means-Tested Welfare or Aid to the Poor” by Robert Rector, Katherine Bradley, and Rachel Sheffield dated September 16, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Welfare/sr0067.cfm .

Feeding America for ‘Free’” by Mark Skousen dated May 20, 2010 published by Human Events at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=37077 .

Department of Housing and Urban Development Proposed Spending Cuts” by Chris Edwards and Tad DeHaven dated May 2010 published by Downsizing Government at http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/hud/spending-cuts .

Confronting the Unsustainable growth of Welfare Entitlements: Principles of Reform and the Next Steps” by Katherine Bradley and Robert rector dated June 24, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/06/Confronting-the-Unsustainable-Growth-of-Welfare-Entitlements-Principles-of-Reform-and-the-Next-Steps .

The Unsustainable Growth of Welfare” dated August 17, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/08/The-Unsustainable-Growth-of-Welfare .

Fourteen Ways to Reduce Government Spending” by Grover Norquist dated August 18, 2010 published by Americans for Tax Reform at http://www.atr.org/files/files/081810pr_14_Specific_Spending_Reduction_Ideas%281%29.pdf .

The Dog That Didn’t Bark” by Mona Charon dated September 27, 2010 published by National Review Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/247766/dog-didnt-bark-mona-charen .

Britain Realizing Benefits of Work-Based Welfare” by Dick Armey dated December 30, 2010 published by News Max at http://www.newsmax.com/blogs/DickArmey/id-89 .

The Hunger Code” by Julie Gunlock dated January 20, 2011 published by National Review Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/257336/hunger-code-julie-gunlock .

“Sen. Paul Proposes Serious Cuts” by Chris Edwards dated January 31, 2011 published by Cato Institute at http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/sen-rand-paul-proposes-serious-cuts .

IRS: working to mainstream welfare” by K.E. Campbell dated February 9, 2011 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2011/02/irs_working_to_mainstream_welf.html .

The Welfare State of the Union” by Jeffrey Folks dated February 10, 2011 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2011/02/the_welfare_state_of_the_union.html .

A Better Way to Reform Welfare” by Ed Feulner dated April 7, 2011 published by Town Hall at http://townhall.com/columnists/edfeulner/2011/04/07/a_better_way_to_reform_welfare .

Evaluating Federal Social Programs: Finding Out What Works and What Does Not” by David B. Muhlhausen dated July 18, 2011 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2011/07/Evaluating-Federal-Social-Programs-Finding-Out-What-Works-and-What-Does-Not .

Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts About America’s Poor” by Robert rector and Rachel Sheffield dated September 13, 2011 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2011/09/Understanding-Poverty-in-the-United-States-Surprising-Facts-About-Americas-Poor .

Food Stamps: A microcosm of Out-of-Control Government” by Tom Blumer dated September 15, 2011 published by Town Hall at http://pajamasmedia.com/blog/food-stamps-a-microcosm-of-out-of-control-government/.

Budget for food stamps ballooning out of control” by Jeff Sessions dated October 23, 2011 published by The Daily Caller at http://dailycaller.com/2011/10/23/sessions-budget-for-food-stamps-ballooning-out-of-control/ .

Why Marriage Preserves More Perfect Union” by Phyllis Schlafly dated October 25, 2011 published by Investor’s Business Daily at http://www.investors.com/NewsAndAnalysis/Article/589282/201110251850/Why-Marriage-Preserves-More-Perfect-Union.htm .

How class warfare weakens America” by Paul Ryan dated October 26, 2011 published by New York Post at http://www.nypost.com/p/news/opinion/opedcolumnists/how_class_warfare_weakens_america_2RiwAsufcsk9ulnS7xJBlK .

Why Not a Negative Income Tax?” by Guy Sorman dated Winter 2011 published by City Journal at http://city-journal.org/2011/21_1_income-tax.html .

 Angry about inequality? Don’t blame the rich.” by James Q. Wilson dated January 26, 2012 published by The Washington Post at http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/angry-about-inequality-dont-blame-the-rich/2012/01/03/gIQA9S2fTQ_story.html .
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http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/02/2012-index-of-dependence-on-government .

Damn, I just want some jam” by Brion McClanahan dated February 28, 2012 published by The Daily Caller at http://dailycaller.com/2012/02/28/damn-i-just-want-some-jam/ .

The Destructive Nature of Welfare” by Rebekah Rast dated March 7, 2012 published by American Clarion at http://www.americanclarion.com/3934/2012/03/07/destructive-nature-welfare/ .

The Misleading Tale of Income Inequality” by Diana Furchtgott-Roth dated March 8, 2012 published by Real Clear Markets at http://www.realclearmarkets.com/articles/2012/03/08/the_misleading_tale_of_income_inequality_99555.html .

The American Welfare State: How We Spend Nearly $1 Trillion a Year Fighting Poverty – and Fail” by Michael Tanner dated April 11, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/american-welfare-state-how-we-spend-nearly-$1-trillion-year-fighting-poverty-fail .
The Dirty Needle That is Government Dependency” by Robert Rohlfing dated April 18, 2012 published by Intellectual Conservative at
http://www.intellectualconservative.com/2012/04/18/the-dirty-needle-that-is-government-dependency/ .

What I Learned in the Poverty War” by Peter Cove dated Autumn 2012 published by City Journal at http://www.city-journal.org/2012/22_4_poverty.html .

Restoring a True Safety Net” by David J. Armor and Sonia Sousa dated Fall 2012 published by National Affairs at http://www.nationalaffairs.com/publications/detail/restoring-a-true-safety-net .

Pew Research Center survey finds declining support for government safety nets” by Berry Hawes dated October 14, 2012 published by The Post and Courier at http://www.postandcourier.com/article/20121014/PC1602/121019592/1165/pew-research-center-survey-finds-declining-support-for-government-safety-nets .

The Comfort of Welfare” by Charles Payne dated February 1, 2013 published by Town Hall at http://finance.townhall.com/columnists/charlespayne/2013/02/01/the-comfort-of-welfare-n1502419 .

Work Disincentives, Still Crazy After All These Years” by Arthur Laffer dated February 8, 2013 published by The Wall Street Journal at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324235104578243373468081096.html?KEYWORDS=work+disincentives .

Parasitocracy” by Daren Jonescu dated October 9, 2013 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2013/10/m-parasitocracy.html .

Europe Tries Welfare Reform” by Michael Tanner dated October 16, 2013 published by National review Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/article/361331/europe-tries-welfare-reform-michael-tanner .

Recalibrating the poverty line” by John F. Schwarz dated October 24, 2013 published by LA Times at http://www.latimes.com/opinion/commentary/la-oe-schwarz-poverty-line-income-gap-20131024,0,7650397.story#axzz2idEO1kWr .

The Government’s War on Poverty Reduction” by Arnold Ahlert dated December 11, 2013 published by Canada Free Press at http://canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/59769 .

In the War on Poverty, a Dogged Adversary” by Eduardo Porter dated December 17, 2013 published by The New York Times at http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/18/business/economy/in-the-war-on-poverty-a-dogged-adversary.html .

What’s Next: A Guaranteed Minimum Income?” by J.D. Longstreet dated December 18, 2013 published by American Clarion at http://www.americanclarion.com/26706/2013/12/18/whats-next-a-guaranteed-minimum-income/ .

10 Programs to Eliminate in the January 2014 Spending Bill and Save $10.2 Billion” by Romina Boccia dated January 3, 2014 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/01/10-programs-to-eliminate-in-the-january-2014-spending-billand-save-102-billion .

It’s Time for Welfare Programs to Require Work, Not Subsidize Idleness” by Robert Rector dated February 1, 2014 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://blog.heritage.org/2014/02/01/help-poor-transforming-growing-welfare/ .

Why We Lost the War on Poverty” by John C. Goodman dated February 8, 2014 published by Town Hall at http://townhall.com/columnists/johncgoodman/2014/02/08/why-we-lost-the-war-on-poverty-n1791483 .

Time for Guaranteed Income?” by Veronique de Rugy dated February 19, 2014 published by Reason at http://reason.com/archives/2014/02/19/time-for-a-guaranteed-income .

The Poverty Hoax” by John Dietrich dated April 8, 2014 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2014/04/the_poverty_hoax.html .

Ten Welfare-Reform Lessons” by Robert Doar dated April 14, 2014 published by National Review Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/article/375679/ten-welfare-reform-lessons-robert-doar .

The Great Society at Fifty” by Nicholas Eberstadt dated May 19, 2014 published by The Weekly Standard at http://www.weeklystandard.com/articles/great-society-fifty_791175.html .

Bring Back the Welfare Stigma” by Daniel Payne dated August 21, 2014 published by The Federalist at http://thefederalist.com/2014/08/21/bring-back-the-welfare-stigma/ .

The War on Poverty Has Been a Colossal Flop” by Robert Rector dated September 16, 2014 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://dailysignal.com/2014/09/16/war-poverty-colossal-flop/ .

Maine Food Stamp Work Requirement Cuts Non-Parent Caseload by 80 Percent” by Robert Rector, Rachel Sheffield, and Kevin D. Dayaratna dated February 8, 2016 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2016/02/maine-food-stamp-work-requirement-cuts-non-parent-caseload-by-80-percent .

Setting Priorities for Welfare Reform” by Robert Rector and Rachel Sheffield dated February 24, 2016 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2016/02/setting-priorities-for-welfare-reform .

What Would Happen If We Just Gave People Money?” by Andrew Flowers dated April 25, 2016 published by FiveThirtyEight at http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/universal-basic-income/ .

 Ending Welfare as We Know It” by Michael Tanner dated April 27, 2016 published by National Review Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/article/434612/welfare-trapping-poor-poverty .

Dramatic success in 2 states that innovated on subsidies for poor people” by Thomas Lifson dated May 1, 2016 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2016/05/dramatic_success_in_2_states_that_innovated_on_subsidies_for_poor_people.html .