RTCS

National Defense

Return to Common Sense

May 6, 2014

Section: Foreign – Defense

Transforming to meet future defense needs will require a clear vision of military use in the future, expected opposition, and sustained investment across multiple political administrations

To be prepared for war is one of the most effective means of preserving peace.” – George Washington

 

Philosophy (Background, Issues, Objectives):

Department of Defense is tasked to protect and advance U.S. national interests by:

The Quadrennial Defense Review seeks to match US military means to strategic ends.

o   The National Security Strategy (which provides high level strategic guidance and objectives) based on a firm political consensus about U.S. national interests and rigorous analysis of short-, medium-, and long-term threats, would shape the roles and missions of the military services as expressed in the National Defense Strategy (the implementation of national strategic objectives by the military), which in turn would influence choices in the Program Objective Memorandum.

o   The military mission must meet a crucial set of criteria:

§  Vital to our national security?

§  Exhausted all available alternatives?

§  Reasonable chance of achieving stated objectives at an acceptable cost?

o   Defend the homeland.

o   Sustain four peacekeeping engagements.

o   Fight two large scale regional conflicts.

o   The military implications of the Bush Doctrine are the overriding framework driving the QDR.

o   The military force levels include active and Reserve components.

o   Containing Chinese military power.

o   Securing a democratic political revolution in the Middle East.

o   Responding to nuclear crisis in a state like Iran or North Korea when containment fails.

o   Defending against cyber attacks.

§  On a single day in 2008, would-be intruders hit the Pentagon 6 million times in a 24-hour period.

§  Before September 11, 2001, the highest annual figure for cyberattacks against the Pentagon was 250,000.

§  There is still no way of telling whether these were attempted intrusions by teenagers testing their hacking skills or the electronic warfare departments of China and Russia, that we know are constantly flexing their electronic muscles."

Missile defense is a technological and political challenge.

o   In 1972 only 9 countries had ballistic missiles.

o   In 2008 at least 27 countries have ballistic missile systems.

§  Some of these countries actively support terrorist groups (North Korea. Iran, Syria).

o   China is planning to integrate space warfare as another domain of war.

o   Short range missile defense systems have been initially successful.

o   Development is underway with some success for ballistic missile defense systems.

o   The command and control network must include expanding array of sensors and interceptors.

o   Australia, Great Britain, and Japan have agreed to cooperative programs in missile defense.

The National Guard is the oldest component of the Armed Forces of the United States.

·         The Guard (Air and Army) can serve in three different manners under present law.

o   State Active Duty - funded by the state, and under command of the state.

o   Federal Duty (Title 10) - funded by DoD, under DoD command.

o   Discretionary (Title 32) - This is funded by DoD, but still under the command of the state to which the troops belong, the most prevalent way to use the Guard when you have a problem such as a national emergency or disaster, allows the cash-strapped states to use their assets as they see fit, but to allow DoD to pay the salaries of the troops.

The “progressive” left has opposed every war that America has fought over the last 70 years.

·         The War against Hitler (until June 1941 when the Soviet Union was attacked) (1939).

·         The Cold War to save Turkey and Greece from Communist conquest (1947).

·         The Korean War (to save South Korea from Communist conquest) (1950).

·         The Vietnam War (to save South Vietnam and Cambodia from Communist conquest) (1964).

·         The War in Afghanistan to liberate Afghanistan from a Soviet Invasion (1979).

·         The War in Grenada to liberate the island from a Communist dictatorship (1983).

·         The War to liberate Central America from Communist dictators and guerillas (1983).

·         The War in Panama to liberate Panama from the rule of a narco thug (1989).

·         The Gulf War to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi conquest (1990).

·         The Balkans War to liberate Kosovo from Serbian rule (1999).

·         The War against the Taliban (2001).

·         The Bush Administration's plan to finish the War to liberate Iraq (2002).

Twenty-two states have volunteer state defense forces (SDF) militia units as low cost force multiplier and homeland security resource.

o   Natural disasters and their aftermaths.

o   Terrorist attacks against population, infrastructure, or facilities.

o   Other hazards to public health and safety, such as outbreaks of contagious diseases.

 

Principles:

Modern Americans are liberators, not conquerors.

Military core capabilities should include:

Caspar Weinberger defined his Doctrine in 1984:

What is a just war?

·         First, since force destroys, and there is a presumption against its use, the presumption must be overcome by first using all peaceful and viable means and alternatives to war; and it must be clear that these alternatives are fruitless before a war can be just.

·         Second, the cause must be just; that is, the purpose of the war must be to correct a grave, profound, enduring public evil that directly impairs the freedom or safety of those contemplating war.

·         Third, only a lawfully competent authority may commence the use of violence, not just the temporary personal preference of whoever is running the government.

·         Fourth, there must be a probability of success, so that men and women are not sent to certain death for a lost cause.

·         Fifth, the use of force must be proportional to the harm it seeks to eradicate; thus, no more persons may be harmed by the use of military force than are absolutely necessary to achieve the just goals of the war.

·         Finally, the war must be fought fairly and ended quickly.

Reagan’s Rules for Military Action:

·         The United States should not commit its forces to military actions overseas unless the cause is vital to our national interest.

·         If the decision is made to commit our forces to combat abroad, it must be done with the clear intent and support to win, with clearly defined and realistic objectives.

·         Before we commit our troops to combat, there must be reasonable assurance that the cause we are fighting for and the actions we take will have the support of the American people and Congress.

·         Even after all these other tests are met, our troops should be committed to combat only as a last resort, when no other choice is available.

Criteria for military intervention:

National defense re-building principles:

·         Rebuild ground forces based on strategic requirements.

·         Preserve the all-volunteer force.

·         Expand the capabilities-based force to support wide range of missions.

·         Revitalize the strategic forces (missile defense, space-based programs, cyber warfare).

·         Develop next-generation platforms.

·         Exploit cutting-edge technologies for competitive advantage over future adversaries.

·         Maintain air supremacy.

·         Maintain the capacity to control sea-lanes and defeat anti-access strategies.

Damage Limitation Strategy tenets:

Principles for Stability Operations and State Building:

·         Principles of Process:

o   1) Develop Human Capital

§  Education

§  Assignment

§  Accreditation

o   2) Create Common Space

o   3) Fight the Fog of Peace

§  Convergence

§  Lack of interagency planning

§  Lack of information and sharing of information

·         Principles of Purpose:

o   4) Determine Clear, Concise National Objectives

o   5) Establish Interagency Coordination

o   6) Ensure Unity of Effort

·         Principles of Peace:

o   7) Understand the Country

o   8) Delegitimize Bad Ideas

o   9) Create Credible Alternative and the Will to Prevail

The Peace Through Strength Platform is a statement of principles, intended to educate the American public on explicit positions taken by candidates for elected office or current office-holders:

Nuclear weapons policy must enhance and enshrine the strategic stability that has preserved global peace and prevented the use of nuclear weapons for generations:

·         Strategic stability requires maintaining strategic forces of sufficient size and composition that a first strike cannot reduce retaliation to a level acceptable to the aggressor.

·         In assessing the level of unacceptable damage, the United States cannot assume that a potential enemy will adhere to values or calculations identical to our own. We need a sufficient number of weapons to pose a threat to what potential aggressors value under every conceivable circumstance. We should avoid strategic analysis by mirror-imaging.

·         The composition of our strategic forces cannot be defined by numbers alone. It also depends on the type of delivery vehicles and their mix. If the composition of the U.S. deterrent force is modified as a result of reduction, agreement or for other reasons, a sufficient variety must be retained, together with a robust supporting command and control system, so as to guarantee that a preemptive attack cannot succeed.

·         In deciding on force levels and lower numbers, verification is crucial. Particularly important is a determination of what level of uncertainty threatens the calculation of stability. At present, that level is well within the capabilities of the existing verification systems. We must be certain that projected levels maintain — and when possible, reinforce — that confidence.

·         The global nonproliferation regime has been weakened to a point where some of the proliferating countries are reported to have arsenals of more than 100 weapons. And these arsenals are growing. At what lower U.S. levels could these arsenals constitute a strategic threat? What will be their strategic impact if deterrence breaks down in the overall strategic relationship? Does this prospect open up the risk of hostile alliances between countries whose forces individually are not adequate to challenge strategic stability but that combined might overthrow the nuclear equation?

·         This suggests that, below a level yet to be established, nuclear reductions cannot be confined to Russia and the United States. As the countries with the two largest nuclear arsenals, Russia and the United States have a special responsibility. But other countries need to be brought into the discussion when substantial reductions from existing START levels are on the international agenda.

·         Strategic stability will be affected by other factors, such as missile defenses and the roles and numbers of tactical nuclear weapons, which are not now subject to agreed limitations. Precision-guided large conventional warheads on long-range delivery vehicles provide another challenge to stability. The interrelationship among these elements must be taken into account in future negotiations.

·         We must see to it that countries that have relied on American nuclear protection maintain their confidence in the U.S. capability for deterrence. If that confidence falters, they may be tempted by accommodation to their adversaries or independent nuclear capabilities.

Chinese Three Warfare’s (psychological, media, legal) technique to achieve strategic objectives.

 

Recommendations:

Short Term, Allocate 4% of GDP on an ongoing basis for the continued rebuilding and maintenance of national defense.

Conduct a Military Transformation Review to identify opportunities to reduce bureaucracy, improve efficiencies and collapsing functional capabilities to cut costs (such as):

Integrate Coast Guard mission and resources from Department of Homeland Security.

Require National Security Strategy to be reviewed and reissued periodically, at least once each administration.

o   Evaluate both short-term and long-term risks.

o   Establish that humanitarian interventions should be State, not Defense mission.

o   Establish that nation-building is State, not Defense mission.

o   Derive the QDR from the National Security Strategy.

o   Create a buffer between the demands of the budget calendar and the strategy policy review.

o   Promote maintaining a substantial technological superiority.

o   Expand the two-war construct to reflect current risk environment.

o   Improve Congressional buy-in by establishing a permanent national defense panel.

o   Clearly link Defense as last resort extension of foreign policy.

o   Set force level needs to meet short and long term threats.

§  Ensure military readiness supports threat needs.

Ø  Ensure social reengineering (DADT) that undermines military readiness.

§  Set equipment needs to address short and long term threats.

o   Optimize defense infrastructure investments.

§  Close underutilized bases.

§  Cut military construction and housing.

§  Reform maintenance and supply systems.

o   Continue investments in a viable tactical and strategic missile defense system.

§  Develop a layered missile defense program.

Ø  Retain the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) program.

Ø  Preserve the Airborne Laser (ABL) program.

Ø  Continue boost-phase missile defense programs.

Ø  Field a system to protect U.S. coastal areas from sea launched shorter range systems.

§  Develop and field test space-based elements.

o   Invest appropriately in cyber-security measures and resources.

o   Add Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) as viable threat scenario.

§  Ensure critical infrastructure (power, communications, IT) is protected from EMP threats.

§  Integrate EMP suppression into missile defense plans.

o   Ensure National Guard receives long term commitment of resources and funding:

§  Ensure the appropriate Active and Reserve mix to meet the needs of the future.

§  Ensure equipment needs include dual use equipment for domestic missions.

§  Reorganize the National Guard to aid its response to catastrophic events.

o   Ensure ongoing maintenance to maintain or extend the service lives of equipment.

o   Standardize infrastructure, logistics, and equipment to better enable unified commands.

o   Restock prepositioned supplies to enable rapid deployment around the world.

o   Reinvigorate multi-national exercises and foreign military engagements.

o   Maintain air superiority advantage.

o   Continue investments in robotic technologies to expand military reach with decreased human risk.

o   Modernize nuclear warheads to maintain a nuclear deterrent.

Reform the military compensation, retirement, and health care system to honor current obligations to service members and updated to meet the changing demands for sustaining the all-volunteer force in a more mobile labor market.

Establish a civilian agency (Stability Operations Force) to replace military when the situation on the ground transitions to post-conflict/post-disaster stabilization and nation building and reconstruction.

o   Recruit Foreign Service experienced professionals for senior leadership positions.

o   Establish a roster of people with language and technical skills to stand by in reserve.

o   Recruit expertise in engineering, medicine, and policing available for deployment.

o   Augment security forces with experienced combat veterans and intelligence personnel.

o   Augment non-security resources with experienced civilian contractors.

Promote the creation of State Defense Forces (SDF) in high risk states

Enforce Solomon Amendment linking federal funding to defense recruiting on campuses.

Long Term, Transform the American military to operate successfully in the future.

Integrate Homeland Security mission and resources into Department of Defense.

Redefine the strategic defense posture to one of Damage Limitation Strategy.

o   Continue reduction of operationally deployed strategic nuclear warheads.

o   Continue improving security at nuclear sites around the world.

o   Continue support for the “Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction” and the “Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism.”

o   Increase Army and Marines to meet future ground forces needs.

o   Expand Special Operations Command (SOCOM) to meet expected expanded missions.

o   Rebuild Navy to a sustainable global power level of deployment (300 ships).

o   Recapitalize and modernize Air Force to maintain air superiority.

o   Establish a National Security Space Command for Space, including satellite, defense.

o   Rebuild intelligence capability to better serve defense needs.

Transfer the Stability Operations Force to the Department of State for to post-conflict/post-disaster stabilization and nation building and reconstruction.

 

References:

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SOCOM Leads the Way?” by Stuart Koehl dated May 21, 2008 published by The Weekly Standard at http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/015/124hraee.asp .

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The Next High-Tech Threat to U.S. Security” by Paul M. Weyrich dated July 1, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=48973533-18B4-4903-BF1A-F083C43B1667 .

Congress Should Not Permit Negative GAO Report to Curtail Weapons Programs” by Baker Spring dated July 11, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.nationaljournal.com/njmagazine/cs_20080709_6213.php .

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The U.S. Strategic Posture Commission Should Recommend a Damage Limitation Strategy” by Baker Spring dated August 13, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2172.cfm .

Who Serves in the U.S. Military? Demographic Characteristics of Enlisted Troops and Officers” by Shanea J. Watkins and James Sherk dated August 21, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/cda08-05.cfm .

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Approaching the ‘Invisible Red Line’: Why Congress Must Act Now to Restore Military Readiness” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated October 31, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Features/NationalSecurity/bg2205.cfm .

Defense Spending ‘Fraud’” by James Jay Carafano and Eric Sayers dated November 21, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=86377B0B-AB68-43A0-9DCC-E5915DE15132 .

Why the World Still Needs America’s Military Might” by Peter Brookes dated November 24, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl1102.cfm .

Moving Forward with Ballistic Missile Defense” by Baker Spring, Peter Brookes, and James Jay Carafano dated December 2, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/BallisticMissileDefense/sr26.cfm .

Preparing the Pentagon for a New Age” by Robert Gates dated December 9, 2008 published by Real Clear Politics at http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2008/12/how_to_reprogram_the_pentagon.html .

Disarming Ourselves” dated December 14, 2008 published by The Wall Street Journal at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122930027871805333.html .

Building Cyber Security Leadership for the 21st Century” by James Jay Carafano and Eric Sayers dated December 16, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2218.cfm .

Contracting in Combat: Advice for the Commission on Wartime Contracting” by James Jay Carafano dated January 13, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2228.cfm .

Quadrennial Defense Review: Building Blocks for Defense” by Baker Spring and Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated January 28, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2234.cfm .

Cyberwarfare Hacks Silent but Deep” by Arnaud De Borchgrave dated February 17, 2009 published by News Max at http://www.newsmax.com/borchgrave/Cyber_hackers/2009/02/17/182570.html .

Arms Control Dinosaurs Are Back” by Marc A. Thiessen dated May 19, 2009 published by The Wall Street Journal at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124268963178032407.html .

They died for you” by Rick Atkinson dated May 24, 2009 published by Pittsburgh Post-Gazette at http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/09144/972099-109.stm .

The First War in Cyberspace” by Ed Timberlake dated May 26, 2009 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2009/05/the_first_war_in_cyberspace.html .

Sustaining American Leadership with Military Power” by Kim R. Holmes dated June 1, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/sr0052.cfm .

Moving Forward on Missile Defense” by Baker Spring dated June 22, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/BallisticMissileDefense/sr0058.cfm .

The Growing Air Power Gap: Implications for U.S. National Security” by Mackenzie M. Eaglen and Lajos F. Szaszdi dated July 7, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2295.cfm .

Does the United States Need a New Police Force for Stability Operations?” by Terrence K. Kelly, Seth G. Jones, James E. Barnett, Keith Crane, Robert C. Davis, and Carl Jensen dated 2009 published by RAND Research at http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9432/ .

The Peace Through Strength Platform” dated 2009 published by Peace Through Strength at http://peacethroughstrength.com/

Planning for the Future: How and Why to Salvage the Pentagon’s Quadrennial Defense Review” by James Talent and Mackenzie Eaglen dated January 4, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2351.cfm .

Fears awakened: Army study suggests new ‘police force’” dated January 21, 2010 published by World Net daily at http://www.wnd.com/index.php?fa=PAGE.view&pageId=122533 .

The State of the U.S. Military” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated January 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/wp012710.cfm .

Losing the Stomach for humanitarian Interventions” by Michael Barone dated April 8, 2010 published by Town Hall at http://townhall.com/columnists/MichaelBarone/2010/04/08/losing_the_stomach_for_humanitarian_interventions .

U.S. Defense Spending: The Mismatch Between Plans and Resources” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated June 7, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/06/US-Defense-Spending-The-Mismatch-Between-Plans-and-Resources .

The Building Blocks of a Strong National Defense” dated August 17, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/08/The-Building-Blocks-of-a-Strong-National-Defense .

The Threat of Nuclear Weapons” dated August 21, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/08/The-Threat-of-Nuclear-Weapons .

Defending Defense” dated October 14, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/10/defending-defense-setting-the-record-straight-on-us-military-spending-requirements .

A Plan to Cut Military Spending” by Benjamin H. Friedman and Christopher Preble dated November 2010 published by CATO Institute at http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/defense/cut_military_spending .

“Sen. Paul Proposes Serious Cuts” by Chris Edwards dated January 31, 2011 published by Cato Institute at http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/sen-rand-paul-proposes-serious-cuts .

How the U.S. Can Cut, Not Gut, Defense” by Robert Maginnis dated April 27, 2011 published by Human Events at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=43149 .

Sixteen Steps to Comprehensive Missile Defense: What the FY 2012 Budget Should Fund” by Baker Spring dated May 3, 2011 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2011/05/Sixteen-Steps-to-Comprehensive-Missile-Defense-What-the-FY-2012-Budget-Should-Fund .

Reverse the Destructive Embrace of Homosexuality in the Military” by Robert Maginnis dated July 27, 2011 published by Human Events at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=45127 .

America Needs a New Foreign Policy” by Zbigniew Mazurak dated November 5, 2011 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2011/11/america_needs_a_new_foreign_policy.html .

Saving the American Dream: Improving Health Care and retirement for Military Service Members and Their Families” by Baker Spring dated November 17, 2011 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2011/11/Saving-the-American-Dream-Improving-Health-Care-and-Retirement-for-Military-Service-Members .

What Is a Just War?” by Andrew Napolitano dated February 2, 2012 published by Town Hall at http://townhall.com/columnists/judgeandrewnapolitano/2012/02/02/what_is_a_just_war .

Why Most States Should Establish State Defense Forces” by Jessica Zuckerman, Martin Hershkowitz, Frederic N. Smalkin, and James Jay Carafano dated February 28, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/02/why-more-states-should-establish-state-defense-forces .

Nuclear weapon reductions must be part of strategic analysis” by Henry A. Kissinger and Brent Scowcraft dated April 22, 2012 published by The Washington Post at http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/nuclear-weapon-reductions-must-be-part-of-strategic-analysis/2012/04/22/gIQAKG4iaT_story.html .

Preventing Catastrophe: Time for a National EMP Awareness Day” by Michaela Bendikova and Jessica Zuckerman dated August 13, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/08/preventing-catastrophe-time-for-a-national-emp-awareness-day .

National Guard at Risk” by Steven Bucci dated August 27, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2012/08/national-guard-at-risk .

Seven Steps to U.S. Security, Prosperity, and Freedom in Cyberspace” by Steven P. Bucci, Paul Rosenzweig, and David Inserra dated March 28, 2013 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/04/a-congressional-guide-seven-steps-to-us-security-prosperity-and-freedom-in-cyberspace .

Rebuttal of the 6 most popular myths about nuclear weapons” by Zbigniew Mazurak dated May 2, 2013 published by Conservative Daily News at http://www.conservativedailynews.com/2013/05/rebuttal-of-the-6-most-popular-myths-about-nuclear-weapons/ .

Reagan’s Rules for Military Action” by Jeffrey Lord dated September 3, 2013 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://spectator.org/archives/2013/09/03/reagans-rules-for-military-act .

Against Humanitarian Intervention” by James Piereson dated September 18, 2013 published by American Spectator at http://spectator.org/archives/2013/09/18/against-humanitarian-intervent .

China’s ‘Three Warfares” by Robert Kozloski dated March 31, 2014 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2014/03/confucius_vs_brock_lesnar.html .

Obama Doubling Down on Nation-Building” by Chriss Street dated May 6, 2014 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2014/05/obama_doubled_down_on_nationbuilding.html .

 

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