Return to Common Sense
October 30, 2015
Section: Foreign – Defense
“Transforming to meet future defense needs will require a clear vision of military use in the future, expected opposition, and sustained investment across multiple political administrations”
“To be prepared for war is one of the most effective means of preserving peace.” – George Washington.
Philosophy (Background, Issues, Objectives):
Department of Defense is tasked to protect and advance U.S. national interests by:
- Ensuring U.S. security and freedom of action.
- Honoring international commitments.
- Contributing to economic well being.
The Quadrennial Defense Review seeks to match US military means to strategic ends.
- The Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) was mandated by Congress in the 1990s to reconcile the U.S. National Security Strategy with the National Defense Strategy and the Program Objective Memorandum, the military's five year defense acquisition plan.
o The National Security Strategy (which provides high level strategic guidance and objectives) based on a firm political consensus about U.S. national interests and rigorous analysis of short-, medium-, and long-term threats, would shape the roles and missions of the military services as expressed in the National Defense Strategy (the implementation of national strategic objectives by the military), which in turn would influence choices in the Program Objective Memorandum.
o The military mission must meet a crucial set of criteria:
§ Vital to our national security?
§ Exhausted all available alternatives?
§ Reasonable chance of achieving stated objectives at an acceptable cost?
- The current military is too small and to old to execute the official national military strategy:
o Defend the homeland.
o Sustain four peacekeeping engagements.
o Fight two large scale regional conflicts.
o The military implications of the Bush Doctrine are the overriding framework driving the QDR.
o The military force levels include active and Reserve components.
- The missions deal with aggressors and potential aggressors against Pax Americana.
o Containing Chinese military power.
o Securing a democratic political revolution in the Middle East.
o Responding to nuclear crisis in a state like Iran or North Korea when containment fails.
o Defending against cyber attacks.
§ On a single day in 2008, would-be intruders hit the Pentagon 6 million times in a 24-hour period.
§ Before September 11, 2001, the highest annual figure for cyberattacks against the Pentagon was 250,000.
§ There is still no way of telling whether these were attempted intrusions by teenagers testing their hacking skills or the electronic warfare departments of China and Russia, that we know are constantly flexing their electronic muscles."
Missile defense is a technological and political challenge.
- The need for missile defense has increased as ballistic missile technology has proliferated.
o In 1972 only 9 countries had ballistic missiles.
o In 2008 at least 27 countries have ballistic missile systems.
§ Some of these countries actively support terrorist groups (North Korea. Iran, Syria).
o China is planning to integrate space warfare as another domain of war.
- In 1983 the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was announced.
o Short range missile defense systems have been initially successful.
o Development is underway with some success for ballistic missile defense systems.
o The command and control network must include expanding array of sensors and interceptors.
o Australia, Great Britain, and Japan have agreed to cooperative programs in missile defense.
The National Guard is the oldest component of the Armed Forces of the United States.
- The National Guard began as this countries militia.
- In 1903 the National Guard was made a Reserve Force for the US Army.
- National Guard provides to the States units trained and equipped to protect life and property.
- Posse Comitatus Act does not apply to Army National Guard troops during domestic missions while under state control.
- Following World War II, National Guard aviation units became the Air National Guard.
- National Guard and Reserves are equipped on a tiered readiness scale after active units.
· The Guard (Air and Army) can serve in three different manners under present law.
o State Active Duty - funded by the state, and under command of the state.
o Federal Duty (Title 10) - funded by DoD, under DoD command.
o Discretionary (Title 32) - This is funded by DoD, but still under the command of the state to which the troops belong, the most prevalent way to use the Guard when you have a problem such as a national emergency or disaster, allows the cash-strapped states to use their assets as they see fit, but to allow DoD to pay the salaries of the troops.
The “progressive” left has opposed every war that America has fought over the last 70 years.
- The War against Hitler (until June 1941 when the Soviet Union was attacked) (1939).
- The Cold War to save Turkey and Greece from Communist conquest (1947).
- The Korean War (to save South Korea from Communist conquest) (1950).
- The Vietnam War (to save South Vietnam and Cambodia from Communist conquest) (1964).
- The War in Afghanistan to liberate Afghanistan from a Soviet Invasion (1979).
- The War in Grenada to liberate the island from a Communist dictatorship (1983).
- The War to liberate Central America from Communist dictators and guerillas (1983).
- The War in Panama to liberate Panama from the rule of a narco thug (1989).
- The Gulf War to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi conquest (1990).
- The Balkans War to liberate Kosovo from Serbian rule (1999).
- The War against the Taliban (2001).
- The Bush Administration's plan to finish the War to liberate Iraq (2002).
Twenty-two states have volunteer state defense forces (SDF) militia units as low cost force multiplier and homeland security resource.
- Modern SDFs serve as auxiliaries to the National Guard units of their states.
- SDF missions are disaster preparation, response, and recovery posed by:
o Natural disasters and their aftermaths.
o Terrorist attacks against population, infrastructure, or facilities.
o Other hazards to public health and safety, such as outbreaks of contagious diseases.
- The SDFs are under control of the state’s governor, with the chain-of-command typically run from the state’s adjutant general as the senior military commander.
- Each state determines precisely what expenses will be covered, at what cost, and for how long.
Modern Americans are liberators, not conquerors.
- Military fights best on behalf of a society in which it believes.
- Society never wants to fight, but it must be prepared to do so if necessary. (Sun Tzu, Clausewitz)
- Defend foreign nations and base troops overseas according to US interests, not other countries.
Military core capabilities should include:
- Protecting and defending the U.S. and its allies against attack,
- Air dominance,
- Maritime control,
- Space control,
- The ability to seize and control territory against organized ground forces,
- Projecting power to distant regions, and
- Information dominance throughout cyberspace.
Caspar Weinberger defined his Doctrine in 1984:
- The United States should not commit forces to combat unless the vital national interests of the United States or its allies are involved.
- U.S. troops should only be committed wholeheartedly and with the clear intention of winning. Otherwise, troops should not be committed.
- U.S. combat troops should be committed only with clearly defined political and military objectives and with the capacity to accomplish those objectives.
- The relationship between the objectives and the size and composition of the forces committed should be continually reassessed and adjusted if necessary.
- U.S. troops should not be committed to battle without a reasonable assurance of the support of U.S. public opinion and Congress.
- The commitment of U.S. troops should be considered only as a last resort.
What is a just war?
- First, since force destroys, and there is a presumption against its use, the presumption must be overcome by first using all peaceful and viable means and alternatives to war; and it must be clear that these alternatives are fruitless before a war can be just.
- Second, the cause must be just; that is, the purpose of the war must be to correct a grave, profound, enduring public evil that directly impairs the freedom or safety of those contemplating war.
- Third, only a lawfully competent authority may commence the use of violence, not just the temporary personal preference of whoever is running the government.
- Fourth, there must be a probability of success, so that men and women are not sent to certain death for a lost cause.
- Fifth, the use of force must be proportional to the harm it seeks to eradicate; thus, no more persons may be harmed by the use of military force than are absolutely necessary to achieve the just goals of the war.
- Finally, the war must be fought fairly and ended quickly.
Reagan’s Rules for Military Action:
· The United States should not commit its forces to military actions overseas unless the cause is vital to our national interest.
· If the decision is made to commit our forces to combat abroad, it must be done with the clear intent and support to win, with clearly defined and realistic objectives.
· Before we commit our troops to combat, there must be reasonable assurance that the cause we are fighting for and the actions we take will have the support of the American people and Congress.
· Even after all these other tests are met, our troops should be committed to combat only as a last resort, when no other choice is available.
Criteria for military intervention:
- Military intervention should defend national security interests.
- Military intervention should not jeopardize the ability of the U.S. to meet more important security commitments.
- Military intervention should strive to achieve military goals that are clearly defined, decisive attainable, and sustainable.
- Military intervention should enjoy congressional and public support.
- The armed forces must be allowed to create conditions for success.
National defense re-building principles:
· Rebuild ground forces based on strategic requirements.
· Preserve the all-volunteer force.
· Expand the capabilities-based force to support wide range of missions.
· Revitalize the strategic forces (missile defense, space-based programs, cyber warfare).
· Develop next-generation platforms.
· Exploit cutting-edge technologies for competitive advantage over future adversaries.
· Maintain air supremacy.
· Maintain the capacity to control sea-lanes and defeat anti-access strategies.
Damage Limitation Strategy tenets:
- The purpose of the U.S. strategic posture is to limit the damage from attacks on the U.S. and its friends and allies, particularly damage from attacks with nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
- A retaliation-based deterrence strategy is inappropriate for today's multipolar world.
- An effective damage limitation strategy relies on a mix of offensive and defensive forces.
- An effective damage limitation strategy requires a global strategic target list that is constantly updated.
- The U.S. must modernize its strategic posture.
- The U.S. should promote international movement toward a damage limitation strategy.
- The U.S. should pursue arms control in a way that focuses on the most difficult targets.
- The U.S. should continue to pursue nonproliferation.
Principles for Stability Operations and State Building:
· Principles of Process:
o 1) Develop Human Capital
o 2) Create Common Space
o 3) Fight the Fog of Peace
§ Lack of interagency planning
§ Lack of information and sharing of information
· Principles of Purpose:
o 4) Determine Clear, Concise National Objectives
o 5) Establish Interagency Coordination
o 6) Ensure Unity of Effort
· Principles of Peace:
o 7) Understand the Country
o 8) Delegitimize Bad Ideas
o 9) Create Credible Alternative and the Will to Prevail
The Peace Through Strength Platform is a statement of principles, intended to educate the American public on explicit positions taken by candidates for elected office or current office-holders:
- Renewed adherence to the national security philosophy of President Ronald Reagan: “Peace Through Strength.” American security is most reliably assured by having military forces that are fully trained, equipped and ready to deter or defeat the nation’s adversaries.
- A robust defense posture including: A safe, reliable effective nuclear deterrent, which requires its modernization and testing; the deployment of comprehensive defenses against missile attack; and national protection against unconventional forms of warfare – including biological, electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) and cyber attacks.
- Preservation of U.S. sovereignty against international treaties, judicial rulings and other measures that would have the effect of supplanting or otherwise diminishing the U.S. Constitution and the representative, accountable form of government it guarantees.
- A nation free of Shariah, the brutally repressive and anti-Constitutional totalitarian program that governs in Saudi Arabia, Iran and other Islamic states and that terrorists are fighting to impose worldwide.
- Protection from unlawful enemy combatants. Enemies who refuse to wear uniforms, use civilians as shields and employ terrorism as weapons are not entitled to U.S. constitutional rights or trials in our civilian courts. Those captured overseas should be incarcerated at Guantanamo Bay, which should remain open, or in other prisons outside the United States.
- Energy security, realized by exploiting to the fullest the natural resources and technologies available in this country. We Americans must reduce our dependence for energy upon – and transfers of national wealth to – enemies of this country.
- Borders secure against penetration by terrorists, narco-traffickers or others seeking to enter the United States illegally. Aliens who have violated immigration laws should not be rewarded with the privileges of citizenship.
- High standards that protect the military culture essential to the All-Volunteer Force. The Pentagon should implement sound priorities, policies and laws that strengthen recruiting, retention, and readiness.
- A foreign policy that supports our allies and opposes our adversaries. It should be clearly preferable to be a friend of the United States, not its enemy.
- Judicial and educational institutions that uphold the constitutional responsibility of elected officials to make policy for our military and convey to future generations accurate portrayals of American history, including the necessity of defending freedom.
Nuclear weapons policy must enhance and enshrine the strategic stability that has preserved global peace and prevented the use of nuclear weapons for generations:
- Strategic stability requires maintaining strategic forces of sufficient size and composition that a first strike cannot reduce retaliation to a level acceptable to the aggressor.
- In assessing the level of unacceptable damage, the United States cannot assume that a potential enemy will adhere to values or calculations identical to our own. We need a sufficient number of weapons to pose a threat to what potential aggressors value under every conceivable circumstance. We should avoid strategic analysis by mirror-imaging.
- The composition of our strategic forces cannot be defined by numbers alone. It also depends on the type of delivery vehicles and their mix. If the composition of the U.S. deterrent force is modified as a result of reduction, agreement or for other reasons, a sufficient variety must be retained, together with a robust supporting command and control system, so as to guarantee that a preemptive attack cannot succeed.
- In deciding on force levels and lower numbers, verification is crucial. Particularly important is a determination of what level of uncertainty threatens the calculation of stability. At present, that level is well within the capabilities of the existing verification systems. We must be certain that projected levels maintain — and when possible, reinforce — that confidence.
- The global nonproliferation regime has been weakened to a point where some of the proliferating countries are reported to have arsenals of more than 100 weapons. And these arsenals are growing. At what lower U.S. levels could these arsenals constitute a strategic threat? What will be their strategic impact if deterrence breaks down in the overall strategic relationship? Does this prospect open up the risk of hostile alliances between countries whose forces individually are not adequate to challenge strategic stability but that combined might overthrow the nuclear equation?
- This suggests that, below a level yet to be established, nuclear reductions cannot be confined to Russia and the United States. As the countries with the two largest nuclear arsenals, Russia and the United States have a special responsibility. But other countries need to be brought into the discussion when substantial reductions from existing START levels are on the international agenda.
- Strategic stability will be affected by other factors, such as missile defenses and the roles and numbers of tactical nuclear weapons, which are not now subject to agreed limitations. Precision-guided large conventional warheads on long-range delivery vehicles provide another challenge to stability. The interrelationship among these elements must be taken into account in future negotiations.
- We must see to it that countries that have relied on American nuclear protection maintain their confidence in the U.S. capability for deterrence. If that confidence falters, they may be tempted by accommodation to their adversaries or independent nuclear capabilities.
Chinese Three Warfare’s (psychological, media, legal) technique to achieve strategic objectives.
- Non-violent intimidation, media manipulation, economic sanctions, financial attacks, information isolation, and network attacks are all valid tactics.
Short Term, Allocate 4% of GDP on an ongoing basis for the continued rebuilding and maintenance of national defense.
- Treat defense spending as essential and ongoing, not “discretionary.”
- Audit the Pentagon’s accounting and financial management systems.
Conduct a Military Transformation Review to identify opportunities to reduce bureaucracy, improve efficiencies and collapsing functional capabilities to cut costs (such as):
- Why must services use separate but parallel staffs for their civilian and uniformed chiefs?
- Why are there redundant staffs and functions across the Department of Defense (ex: general counsel, public affairs, legislative affairs, surgeon general, and separate exchange systems and commissary systems)?
- Why do we need two ground forces (Army and Marines)?
- Why do we need four air forces (each service has an air force)?
- Why do we need three navies (Coast Guard, Navy, and Army’s fleet of tugs, barges, and boats)?
- Why do we need eight Defense Department intelligence agencies?
- Why must all the services be so top heavy and multi-layered?
Integrate Coast Guard mission and resources from Department of Homeland Security.
Require National Security Strategy to be reviewed and reissued periodically, at least once each administration.
- Outline the major national security concerns and administration plans to deal with them.
o Evaluate both short-term and long-term risks.
o Establish that humanitarian interventions should be State, not Defense mission.
o Establish that nation-building is State, not Defense mission.
- Improve the Quadrennial Defense Review to better link strategy to plans:
o Derive the QDR from the National Security Strategy.
o Create a buffer between the demands of the budget calendar and the strategy policy review.
o Promote maintaining a substantial technological superiority.
o Expand the two-war construct to reflect current risk environment.
o Improve Congressional buy-in by establishing a permanent national defense panel.
o Clearly link Defense as last resort extension of foreign policy.
o Set force level needs to meet short and long term threats.
§ Ensure military readiness supports threat needs.
Ø Ensure social reengineering (DADT) that undermines military readiness.
§ Set equipment needs to address short and long term threats.
- Set reasonable near and long term budgeting goals for military modernization.
o Optimize defense infrastructure investments.
§ Close underutilized bases.
§ Cut military construction and housing.
§ Reform maintenance and supply systems.
o Continue investments in a viable tactical and strategic missile defense system.
§ Develop a layered missile defense program.
Ø Retain the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV) program.
Ø Preserve the Airborne Laser (ABL) program.
Ø Continue boost-phase missile defense programs.
Ø Field a system to protect U.S. coastal areas from sea launched shorter range systems.
§ Develop and field test space-based elements.
o Invest appropriately in cyber-security measures and resources.
o Add Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) as viable threat scenario.
§ Ensure critical infrastructure (power, communications, IT) is protected from EMP threats.
§ Integrate EMP suppression into missile defense plans.
o Ensure National Guard receives long term commitment of resources and funding:
§ Ensure the appropriate Active and Reserve mix to meet the needs of the future.
§ Ensure equipment needs include dual use equipment for domestic missions.
§ Reorganize the National Guard to aid its response to catastrophic events.
- Ensure logistics meet defense needs and critical components are not dependent on foreign suppliers.
o Ensure ongoing maintenance to maintain or extend the service lives of equipment.
o Standardize infrastructure, logistics, and equipment to better enable unified commands.
o Restock prepositioned supplies to enable rapid deployment around the world.
o Reinvigorate multi-national exercises and foreign military engagements.
- Fix 40% of overall defense budget for modernization, research and development, and procurement.
o Maintain air superiority advantage.
o Continue investments in robotic technologies to expand military reach with decreased human risk.
o Modernize nuclear warheads to maintain a nuclear deterrent.
Reform the military compensation, retirement, and health care system to honor current obligations to service members and updated to meet the changing demands for sustaining the all-volunteer force in a more mobile labor market.
- Expand the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) to provide tax deferred savings for all purposes including retirement.
- Transition from existing defined-benefit health care plans to defined-contribution plans that maximize choice.
- Focus the Military Health Service (MHS) and Veterans Affairs (VA) systems on military medicine specializing on military medicine and service related injuries and diseases.
Establish a civilian agency (Stability Operations Force) to replace military when the situation on the ground transitions to post-conflict/post-disaster stabilization and nation building and reconstruction.
- Assign an experienced and capable contracting office at all deployed locations, reporting into the State Department.
- Staff Stability Operations Force positions with experienced civilian subject matter experts.
o Recruit Foreign Service experienced professionals for senior leadership positions.
o Establish a roster of people with language and technical skills to stand by in reserve.
o Recruit expertise in engineering, medicine, and policing available for deployment.
o Augment security forces with experienced combat veterans and intelligence personnel.
o Augment non-security resources with experienced civilian contractors.
Promote the creation of State Defense Forces (SDF) in high risk states
- Integrate SDF units into state and federal emergency management planning.
- Permit joint training between the National Guard and the SDF.
- Enhance state resource allocation and federal in-kind support.
- Develop the SDF Intelligence mission (local knowledge operational intelligence)
Enforce Solomon Amendment linking federal funding to defense recruiting on campuses.
Long Term, Transform the American military to operate successfully in the future.
Integrate Homeland Security mission and resources into Department of Defense.
Redefine the strategic defense posture to one of Damage Limitation Strategy.
- Continue comprehensive scenario planning to address all future contingencies.
- Strive for eventual complete nuclear disarmament.
o Continue reduction of operationally deployed strategic nuclear warheads.
o Continue improving security at nuclear sites around the world.
o Continue support for the “Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction” and the “Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism.”
- Set a clear vision of military use in the future, expected opposition, and provide sustained investment.
o Increase Army and Marines to meet future ground forces needs.
o Expand Special Operations Command (SOCOM) to meet expected expanded missions.
o Rebuild Navy to a sustainable global power level of deployment (300 ships).
o Recapitalize and modernize Air Force to maintain air superiority.
o Establish a National Security Space Command for Space, including satellite, defense.
o Rebuild intelligence capability to better serve defense needs.
Transfer the Stability Operations Force to the Department of State for to post-conflict/post-disaster stabilization and nation building and reconstruction.
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“The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and Space Warfare” by Larry M. Wortzel dated October 17, 2007 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.26977,filter.all/pub_detail.asp .
“Resign, Retire, Renounce” by Fred Kaplan dated October 17, 2007 published by Slate Magazine at http://www.slate.com/id/2176122 .
“A Maginot Line in the Sky” by Ralph Peters dated October 26, 2007 published by New York Post at http://www.nypost.com/seven/10262007/postopinion/opedcolumnists/a_maginot_line_in_the_sky.htm .
“A Dangerous Opportunity” by Frederick W. Kagan dated October 30, 2007 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.27040,filter.foreign/pub_detail.asp .
“The Civilian Side of the War on Terror” by Dana R. Dillon dated October 31, 2007 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=6A96B7AF-5377-479B-B3CF-6595F19091B3 .
“12 Myths of 21st-Century War” by Ralph Peters dated November 2007 published by The American Legion Magazine at http://www.legion.org/?section=publications&subsection=pubs_mag_index&content=pub_mag_warmyths_1107 .
“Military Deaths Lower Now Than in 1980s” by Fred Lucas dated November 12, 2007 published by Cybercast News Service at http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewNation.asp?Page=/Nation/archive/200711/NAT20071112a.html .
“The Guard’s Turn to Surge” by Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. dated December 14, 2007 published by National Journal at http://nationaljournal.com/about/njweekly/stories/2007/1214nj1.htm .
“A Civilian Partner for Our Troops” by Richard G. Lugar and Condeleezza Rice dated December 17, 2007 published by Washington Post at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/16/AR2007121601560_pf.html .
“The Pentagon’s Robots: Arming the Future” by James Jay Carafano dated December 19, 2007 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2093.cfm .
“Providing for the Common Defense: What 10 Years of Progress Would Look Like” by James Jay Carafano, Baker Spring, and Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated February 19, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2108.cfm .
“Cracks in America’s Air Defenses” by W. Thomas Smith, Jr. dated February 28, 2008 published by Human Events Online at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=25228 .
“Plane-Wreck” by Frank J. Gaffney Jr. dated March 12, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=23820B76-384A-4BFB-B422-4B523AB13BD3 .
Left’s Escalating War on Military Recruiters” by Michelle Malkin dated March 12, 2008 published by Town Hall at http://www.townhall.com/columnists/MichelleMalkin/2008/03/12/the_lefts_escalating_war_on_military_recruiters .
“Principles for Stability Operations and State-Building” by James Jay Carafano dated February 13, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl1067.cfm .
“Fire When Ready” dated March 20, 2008 published by Investor’s Business Daily at http://www.ibdeditorials.com/IBDArticles.aspx?id=290905631248476 .
“Providing for the Common Defense: Why 4 percent?” dated April 2, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/homelanddefense/wp040208.cfm .
“Defense Issues for the Next Administration” by Thomas Donnelly and Tim Sullivan dated April 29, 2008 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all,pubID.27895/pub_detail.asp .
“Advice for the Nuclear Abolitionists” by Gary J. Schmitt and Henry Sokolski dated May 5, 2008 published by American Enterprise Institute at http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all,pubID.27934/pub_detail.asp .
“The Silence of the Media Lambs” by Martin Sieff dated May 6, 2008 published by Human Events Online at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=26365 .
“SOCOM Leads the Way?” by Stuart Koehl dated May 21, 2008 published by The Weekly Standard at http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/015/124hraee.asp .
“On Promises Kept, Rank Our Government ‘Unsatisfactory’” by Thomas D. Segel dated June 28, 2008 published by American Daily at http://www.americandaily.com/article/22484 .
“The Next High-Tech Threat to U.S. Security” by Paul M. Weyrich dated July 1, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=48973533-18B4-4903-BF1A-F083C43B1667 .
“Congress Should Not Permit Negative GAO Report to Curtail Weapons Programs” by Baker Spring dated July 11, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.nationaljournal.com/njmagazine/cs_20080709_6213.php .
“Nation Building 101” by Erin Wildermuth dated August 11, 2008 published by The American Spectator at http://www.spectator.org/dsp_article.asp?art_id=13673 .
“The U.S. Strategic Posture Commission Should Recommend a Damage Limitation Strategy” by Baker Spring dated August 13, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2172.cfm .
“Who Serves in the U.S. Military? Demographic Characteristics of Enlisted Troops and Officers” by Shanea J. Watkins and James Sherk dated August 21, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/cda08-05.cfm .
“The Petraeus Doctrine” by Andrew J. Bacevich dated October 2008 published by The Atlantic Magazine at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200810/petraeus-doctrine .
“Approaching the ‘Invisible Red Line’: Why Congress Must Act Now to Restore Military Readiness” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated October 31, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Features/NationalSecurity/bg2205.cfm .
“Defense Spending ‘Fraud’” by James Jay Carafano and Eric Sayers dated November 21, 2008 published by Front Page Magazine at http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=86377B0B-AB68-43A0-9DCC-E5915DE15132 .
“Why the World Still Needs America’s Military Might” by Peter Brookes dated November 24, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl1102.cfm .
“Moving Forward with Ballistic Missile Defense” by Baker Spring, Peter Brookes, and James Jay Carafano dated December 2, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/BallisticMissileDefense/sr26.cfm .
“Preparing the Pentagon for a New Age” by Robert Gates dated December 9, 2008 published by Real Clear Politics at http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2008/12/how_to_reprogram_the_pentagon.html .
“Disarming Ourselves” dated December 14, 2008 published by The Wall Street Journal at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122930027871805333.html .
“Building Cyber Security Leadership for the 21st Century” by James Jay Carafano and Eric Sayers dated December 16, 2008 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2218.cfm .
“Contracting in Combat: Advice for the Commission on Wartime Contracting” by James Jay Carafano dated January 13, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2228.cfm .
“Quadrennial Defense Review: Building Blocks for Defense” by Baker Spring and Mackenzie M. Eaglen dated January 28, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2234.cfm .
“Cyberwarfare Hacks Silent but Deep” by Arnaud De Borchgrave dated February 17, 2009 published by News Max at http://www.newsmax.com/borchgrave/Cyber_hackers/2009/02/17/182570.html .
“Arms Control Dinosaurs Are Back” by Marc A. Thiessen dated May 19, 2009 published by The Wall Street Journal at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124268963178032407.html .
“They died for you” by Rick Atkinson dated May 24, 2009 published by Pittsburgh Post-Gazette at http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/09144/972099-109.stm .
“The First War in Cyberspace” by Ed Timberlake dated May 26, 2009 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2009/05/the_first_war_in_cyberspace.html .
“Sustaining American Leadership with Military Power” by Kim R. Holmes dated June 1, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/sr0052.cfm .
“Moving Forward on Missile Defense” by Baker Spring dated June 22, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/BallisticMissileDefense/sr0058.cfm .
“The Growing Air Power Gap: Implications for U.S. National Security” by Mackenzie M. Eaglen and Lajos F. Szaszdi dated July 7, 2009 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2295.cfm .
“Does the United States Need a New Police Force for Stability Operations?” by Terrence K. Kelly, Seth G. Jones, James E. Barnett, Keith Crane, Robert C. Davis, and Carl Jensen dated 2009 published by RAND Research at http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9432/ .
“The Peace Through Strength Platform” dated 2009 published by Peace Through Strength at http://peacethroughstrength.com/
“Planning for the Future: How and Why to Salvage the Pentagon’s Quadrennial Defense Review” by James Talent and Mackenzie Eaglen dated January 4, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg2351.cfm .
“Fears awakened: Army study suggests new ‘police force’” dated January 21, 2010 published by World Net daily at http://www.wnd.com/index.php?fa=PAGE.view&pageId=122533 .
“The State of the U.S. Military” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated January 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/wp012710.cfm .
“Losing the Stomach for humanitarian Interventions” by Michael Barone dated April 8, 2010 published by Town Hall at http://townhall.com/columnists/MichaelBarone/2010/04/08/losing_the_stomach_for_humanitarian_interventions .
“U.S. Defense Spending: The Mismatch Between Plans and Resources” by Mackenzie Eaglen dated June 7, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/06/US-Defense-Spending-The-Mismatch-Between-Plans-and-Resources .
“The Building Blocks of a Strong National Defense” dated August 17, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/08/The-Building-Blocks-of-a-Strong-National-Defense .
“The Threat of Nuclear Weapons” dated August 21, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2010/08/The-Threat-of-Nuclear-Weapons .
“Defending Defense” dated October 14, 2010 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/10/defending-defense-setting-the-record-straight-on-us-military-spending-requirements .
“A Plan to Cut Military Spending” by Benjamin H. Friedman and Christopher Preble dated November 2010 published by CATO Institute at http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/defense/cut_military_spending .
“Sen. Paul Proposes Serious Cuts” by Chris Edwards dated January 31, 2011 published by Cato Institute at http://www.downsizinggovernment.org/sen-rand-paul-proposes-serious-cuts .
“How the U.S. Can Cut, Not Gut, Defense” by Robert Maginnis dated April 27, 2011 published by Human Events at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=43149 .
“Sixteen Steps to Comprehensive Missile Defense: What the FY 2012 Budget Should Fund” by Baker Spring dated May 3, 2011 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2011/05/Sixteen-Steps-to-Comprehensive-Missile-Defense-What-the-FY-2012-Budget-Should-Fund .
“Reverse the Destructive Embrace of Homosexuality in the Military” by Robert Maginnis dated July 27, 2011 published by Human Events at http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=45127 .
“America Needs a New Foreign Policy” by Zbigniew Mazurak dated November 5, 2011 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2011/11/america_needs_a_new_foreign_policy.html .
“Saving the American Dream: Improving Health Care and retirement for Military Service Members and Their Families” by Baker Spring dated November 17, 2011 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2011/11/Saving-the-American-Dream-Improving-Health-Care-and-Retirement-for-Military-Service-Members .
“What Is a Just War?” by Andrew Napolitano dated February 2, 2012 published by Town Hall at http://townhall.com/columnists/judgeandrewnapolitano/2012/02/02/what_is_a_just_war .
“Why Most States Should Establish State Defense Forces” by Jessica Zuckerman, Martin Hershkowitz, Frederic N. Smalkin, and James Jay Carafano dated February 28, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/02/why-more-states-should-establish-state-defense-forces .
“Nuclear weapon reductions must be part of strategic analysis” by Henry A. Kissinger and Brent Scowcraft dated April 22, 2012 published by The Washington Post at http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/nuclear-weapon-reductions-must-be-part-of-strategic-analysis/2012/04/22/gIQAKG4iaT_story.html .
“Preventing Catastrophe: Time for a National EMP Awareness Day” by Michaela Bendikova and Jessica Zuckerman dated August 13, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/08/preventing-catastrophe-time-for-a-national-emp-awareness-day .
“National Guard at Risk” by Steven Bucci dated August 27, 2012 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2012/08/national-guard-at-risk .
“Seven Steps to U.S. Security, Prosperity, and Freedom in Cyberspace” by Steven P. Bucci, Paul Rosenzweig, and David Inserra dated March 28, 2013 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/04/a-congressional-guide-seven-steps-to-us-security-prosperity-and-freedom-in-cyberspace .
“Rebuttal of the 6 most popular myths about nuclear weapons” by Zbigniew Mazurak dated May 2, 2013 published by Conservative Daily News at http://www.conservativedailynews.com/2013/05/rebuttal-of-the-6-most-popular-myths-about-nuclear-weapons/ .
“Reagan’s Rules for Military Action” by Jeffrey Lord dated September 3, 2013 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://spectator.org/archives/2013/09/03/reagans-rules-for-military-act .
“Against Humanitarian Intervention” by James Piereson dated September 18, 2013 published by American Spectator at http://spectator.org/archives/2013/09/18/against-humanitarian-intervent .
“China’s ‘Three Warfares’” by Robert Kozloski dated March 31, 2014 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2014/03/confucius_vs_brock_lesnar.html .
“Obama Doubling Down on Nation-Building” by Chriss Street dated May 6, 2014 published by American Thinker at http://www.americanthinker.com/2014/05/obama_doubled_down_on_nationbuilding.html .
“2015 Index of U.S. Military Strength” dated February 24, 2015 published by The Heritage Foundation at http://index.heritage.org/militarystrength/ .
“The 2016 Index of U.S. Military Strength” dated October 28, 2015 published by The eritage Foundation at http://index.heritage.org/military/2016/ .